Landslide – Debris flows, Lahars, Debris avalanche,

Flows

A flow is a spatially continuous movement in which the surfaces of shear are short-lived, closely spaced, and usually not preserved. The component velocities in the displacing mass of a flow resemble those in a viscous liquid. Often, there is a gradation of change from slides to flows, depending on the water content, mobility, and evolution of the movement.

Debris flows

A form of a rapid mass movement in which loose soil, rock and sometimes organic matter combine with water to form a slurry that flows downslope. They have been informally and inappropriately called “mudslides” due to the large quantity of fine material that may be present in the flow. Occasionally, as a rotational or translational slide gains velocity and the internal mass loses cohesion or gains water, it may evolve into a debris flow. Dry flows can sometimes occur in cohesionless sand (sand flows).
Debris flows can be deadly as they can be extremely rapid and may occur without any warning.


Occurrence

Debris flows occur around the world and are prevalent in steep gullies and canyons; they can be intensified when occurring on slopes or in gullies that have been denuded of vegetation due to wildfires or forest logging. They are common in volcanic areas with weak soil.


Relative size/range

These types of flows can be thin and watery or thick with sediment and debris and are usually confined to the dimensions of the steep gullies that facilitate their downward movement. Generally, the movement is relatively shallow and the runout is both long and narrow, sometimes extending for kilometers in steep terrain. The debris and mud usually terminate at the base of the slopes and create fanlike, triangular deposits called debris fans, which may also be unstable.


Velocity of travel

Can be rapid to extremely rapid (35 miles per hour or 56 km per hour)
depending on consistency and slope angle.


Triggering mechanisms

Debris flows are commonly caused by intense surface-water flow, due to heavy precipitation or rapid snowmelt, that erodes and mobilizes loose soil or rock on steep slopes. Debris flows also commonly mobilize from other types of landslides that occur on steep slopes are nearly saturated, and consist of a large proportion of silt- and sand-sized material.


Effects (direct/indirect)

Debris flows can be lethal because of their rapid onset, high speed of movement, and the fact that they can incorporate large boulders and other pieces of debris. They can move objects as large as houses in their downslope flow or can fill structures with a rapid accumulation of sediment and organic matter. They can affect the quality of water by depositing large amounts of silt and debris.

Mitigation measures

Flows usually cannot be prevented; thus, homes should not be built-in
steep-walled gullies that have a history of debris flows or are otherwise susceptible due to wildfires, soil type, or other related factors. New flows can be directed away from structures by means of deflection, debris-flow basins can be built to contain the flow, and warning systems can be put in place in areas where it is known at what rainfall thresholds debris flows are triggered. Evacuation, avoidance, and (or) relocation are the best methods to prevent injury and life loss.


Predictability

Maps of potential debris-flow hazards exist for some areas. Debris flows can be frequent in any area of steep slopes and heavy rainfall, either seasonally or intermittently, and especially in areas that have been recently burned or the vegetation removed by other means. Figures 1 and 2 show a schematic and an image of a debris flow.

Figure 1. Schematic of a debris flow
Figure 2. Debris flow damage to the city of Caraballeda, located at the base of the Cordillera de la Costan, on the north coast of Venezuela. In December 1999, this the area was hit by Venezuela’s worst natural disaster of the 20th century; several days of torrential rain triggered flows of mud, boulders, water, and trees that killed as many as 30,000 people. (Photograph by L.M. Smith, Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.)
Debris flows
Figure 3. Debris flow elements

Lahars (Volcanic Debris Flows)


The word “lahar” is an Indonesian term. Lahars are also known as volcanic mudflows. These are flows that originate on the slopes of volcanoes and are a type of debris flow. A lahar mobilizes the loose accumulations of tephra (the airborne solids erupted from the volcano) and related debris.


Occurrence

Found in nearly all volcanic areas of the world.


Relative size/range

Lahars can be hundreds of square kilometers or miles in area and can
become larger as they gain speed and accumulate debris as they travel downslope; or, they can be small in volume and affect limited areas of the volcano and then dissipate downslope.


Velocity of travel

Lahars can be very rapid (more than 35 miles per hour or 50 kilometers per hour) especially if they mix with a source of water such as melting snowfields or glaciers. If they are viscous and thick with debris and less water, the movement will be slow to moderately slow.

Figure 4. The side of Casita Volcano in Nicaragua, Central America, collapsed on October 30, 1998, the day of peak rainfall as Hurricane Mitch moved across Central America. This lahar killed more than 2,000 people as it swept over the towns of El Porvenir and Rolando Rodriguez. (Photograph by K.M. Smith, U.S. Geological Survey.)


Triggering mechanism

Water is the primary triggering mechanism, and it can originate from crater lakes, condensation of erupted steam on volcano particles, or the melting of snow and ice at the top of high volcanoes. Some of the largest and most deadly lahars have originated from eruptions or volcanic venting which suddenly melts surrounding snow and ice and causes rapid liquefaction and flow down steep volcanic slopes at catastrophic speeds.


Effects (direct/indirect)

Effects can be extremely large and devastating, especially when triggered by a volcanic eruption and consequent rapid melting of any snow and ice—the flow can bury human settlements located on the volcano slopes. Some large flows can also dam rivers, causing flooding upstream. Subsequent breaching of these weakly cemented dams can cause catastrophic flooding downstream. This type of landslide often results in large numbers of human casualties.


Mitigation measures

No corrective measures are known that can be taken to prevent damage from lahars except for avoidance by not building or locating in their paths or on the slopes of volcanoes. Warning systems and subsequent evacuation work in some instances may save lives. However, warning systems require active monitoring, and a reliable evacuation method is essential.

Predictability

Susceptibility maps based on past occurrences of lahars can be constructed, as well as runout estimations of potential flows. Such maps are not readily available for most hazardous areas. Figures 5 and 6 show a schematic and an image of a lahar.

Figure 5. Schematic of a lahar.
Figure 6. Photograph of a lahar caused by the 1982 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, USA. (Photograph by Tom Casadevall, U.S. Geological Survey.)

Debris Avalanche


Debris avalanches are essentially large, extremely rapid, often open-slope flows formed when an unstable slope collapses and the resulting fragmented debris is rapidly transported away from the slope. In some cases, snow and ice will contribute to the movement if sufficient water is present, and the flow may become a debris flow and (or) a lahar.


Occurrence

Occur worldwide in steep terrain environments. Also common on very steep volcanoes where they may follow drainage courses.


Relative size/range

Some large avalanches have been known to transport material blocks as large as 3 kilometers in size, several kilometers from their source.


Velocity of travel

Rapid to extremely rapid; such debris avalanches can travel close to 100 meters/sec.


Triggering mechanism

In general, the two types of debris avalanches are those that are “cold” and those that are “hot.” A cold debris avalanche usually results from a slope becoming unstable, such as during collapse of weathered slopes in steep terrain or through the disintegration of bedrock during a slide-type landslide as it moves downslope at high velocity. At that point, the mass can then transform into a debris avalanche. A hot debris avalanche is one that results from volcanic activity including volcanic earthquakes or the injection of magma, which causes slope instability.


Effects (direct/indirect)

Debris avalanches may travel several kilometers before stopping, or they may transform into more water-rich lahars or debris flows that travel many tens of kilometres farther downstream. Such failures may inundate towns and villages and impair stream quality. They move very fast and thus may prove deadly because there is little chance for warning and response.


Corrective measures/mitigation

Avoidance of construction in valleys on volcanoes or steep mountain slopes and real-time warning systems may lessen damages. However, warning systems may prove difficult due to the speed at which debris avalanches occur—there may not be enough time after the initiation of the event for people to evacuate. Debris avalanches cannot be stopped or prevented by engineering means because the associated triggering mechanisms are not preventable.

Predictability

If evidence of prior debris avalanches exists in an area, and if such evidence can be dated, a probabilistic recurrence period might be established. During volcanic eruptions, chances are greater for a debris avalanche to occur, so appropriate cautionary actions could be adopted. Figures 7 and 8 show a schematic and an image of a debris avalanche.

Figure 7. Schematic of a debris avalanche
Figure 8. A debris avalanche that buried the village of Guinsaugon, Southern Leyte, Philippines, in February 2006. (Photograph by University of Tokyo Geotechnical Team.)
Figure 9. The active volcano, Mount Shasta in California, USA. Note the landforms in the foreground, caused by a debris avalanche that occurred about 300,000 years ago. The debris avalanche traveled great distances from the volcano and produced lasting landform effects that can still be seen today. (Photograph by R. Crandall, U.S. Geological Survey.)

Adapted of “The Landslide Handbook” By L. M. Highland, U.S. Geological Survey, and P. Bobrowsky, Geological Survey of Canada

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