geologic time scale

Time scale

July 8, 2019 admin 6

Numbers on the time scale represent time in millions of years before present. Numerical dates were added long after the time scale was established using […]


July 8, 2019 admin 0

Basic types of contacts To understand the concept of nonconformity in the rock formation, it is important to mention the basic types of contacts between […]



July 8, 2019 admin 1

A disconformity is a gap in the rock A disconformity is a gap in the rock record that represents a period of erosion rather than […]

coquina and chalk

Coquina and Chalk

July 8, 2019 admin 2

Although a great deal of limestone is produced by biological processes, this origin is not always evident because shells and skeletons may undergo considerable change […]


How Does Shale Form?

July 8, 2019 admin 0

Much of what can be learned about the process that forms shale is related to particle size. The tiny grains in shale indicate that deposition […]

the soil profile

The Soil Profile

July 8, 2019 admin 15

Because soil-forming processes operate from the surface downward, soil composition, texture, structure, and color gradually evolve differently at varying depths. These vertical differences, which usually […]

Igneous rock

Igneous Processes

July 8, 2019 admin 1

Igneous rocks Igneous rocks form in two basic settings. Molten rock may crystallize within Earth’s crust over a range of depths, or it may solidify […]