Engineering geology

Landslide – Earthflow, Creep, Flows in Permafrost

Earthflow


Earthflows can occur on gentle to moderate slopes, generally in fine-grained soil, commonly clay or silt, but also in very weathered, clay-bearing bedrock. The mass in an earthflow moves as a plastic or viscous flow with strong internal deformation. Susceptible marine clay (quick clay) when disturbed is very vulnerable and may lose all shear strength with a change in its natural moisture content and suddenly liquefy, potentially destroying large areas and flowing for several kilometres.

Size commonly increases through headscarp retrogression. Slides or lateral spreads may also evolve downslope into earthflows. Earthflows can range from very slow (creep) to rapid and catastrophic. Very slow flows and specialized forms of earthflow restricted to northern permafrost environments are discussed elsewhere.

Occurrence

Earthflows occur worldwide in regions underlain by fine-grained soil or very weathered bedrock. Catastrophic rapid earthflows are common in the susceptible marine clays of the St. Lawrence Lowlands of North America, coastal Alaska and British Columbia, and in Scandinavia.

Relative (size/range)

Flows can range from small events of 100 square meters in size to large events encompassing several square kilometers in area. Earthflows in susceptible marine clays may runout for several kilometers. Depth of the failure ranges from shallow to many tens of meters.


Velocity of travel

Slow to very rapid.


Triggering mechanisms

Triggers include saturation of soil due to prolonged or intense rainfall or snowmelt, sudden lowering of adjacent water surfaces causing rapid drawdown of the ground-water table, stream erosion at the bottom of a slope, excavation and construction activities, excessive loading on a slope, earthquakes, or human-induced vibration.


Effects (direct/indirect)

Rapid, retrogressive earthflows in susceptible marine clay may devastate large areas of flat land lying above the slope and also may runout for considerable distances, potentially resulting in human fatalities, destruction of buildings and linear infrastructure, and damming of rivers with resultant flooding upstream and water siltation problems downstream.
Slower earthflows may damage properties and sever linear infrastructure.

Corrective measures/mitigation

Improved drainage is an important corrective measure, as is grading of slopes and protecting the base of the slope from erosion or excavation.
Shear strength of clay can be measured, and potential pressure can be monitored in suspect slopes. However, the best mitigation is to avoid development activities near such slopes.

Predictabilit

Evidence of past earthflows is the best indication of vulnerability. Distribution of clay likely to liquefy can in some cases be mapped and has been mapped in many parts of eastern North America. Cracks opening near the top of the slope may indicate potential failure. Figures 1 and 2 show a schematic and an image of an earthflow.

Figure 1. Schematic of an earthflow
Figure 2. The 1993 Lemieux landslide—a rapid earthflow in sensitive marine clay near Ottawa, Canada. The headscarp retrogressed 680 meters into the level ground above the riverbank. About 2.8 million tons of clay and silt liquefied and flowed into the South Nation River valley, damming the river. (Photograph by G.R. Brooks, Geological Survey of Canada.)

Slow Earthflow (Creep)

Creep is the informal name for a slow earthflow and consists of the imperceptibly slow, steady downward movement of slope-forming soil or rock. Movement is caused by internal shear stress sufficient to cause deformation but insufficient to cause failure. Generally, the three types of creep are: (1) seasonal, where movement is within the depth of soil affected by seasonal changes in soil moisture and temperature; (2) continuous, where shear stress continuously exceeds the strength of the material; and (3) progressive, where slopes are reaching the point of failure for other types of mass movements.


Occurrence

Creep is widespread around the world and is probably the most common type of landslide, often preceding more rapid and damaging types of landslides. Solifluction, a specialized form of creep common to permafrost environments, occurs in the upper layer of ice-rich, fine-grained soils during the annual thaw of this layer.


Relative size/range

Creep can be very regional in nature (tens of square kilometres) or simply confined to small areas. It is difficult to discern the boundaries of creep since the event itself is so slow and surface features representing perceptible deformation may be lacking.

Velocity of travel

Very slow to extremely slow. Usually less than 1 meter (0.3 foot) per decade.


Triggering mechanism

For seasonal creep, rainfall and snowmelt are typical triggers, whereas for other types of creep, there could be numerous causes, such as chemical or physical weathering, leaking pipes, poor drainage, destabilizing types of construction, and so on.

Effects

Because it is hard to detect in some places because of the slowness of movement, creep is sometimes not recognized when assessing the suitability of a building site. Creep can slowly pull apart pipelines, buildings, highways, fences, and so forth, and can lead to more drastic ground failures that are more destructive and faster moving.

Corrective measures/mitigation

The most common mitigation for creep is to ensure proper drainage of water, especially for the seasonal type of creep. Slope modification such as flattening or removing all or part of the landslide mass can be attempted, as well as the construction of retaining walls.

Predictability

Indicated by curved tree trunks, bent fences and (or) retaining walls, tilted poles or fences, and small soil ripples or ridges on the surface. Rates of creep can be measured by inclinometers installed in boreholes or by detailed surface measurements. Figures 3 and 4 show a schematic and an image of creep.

Figure 3. Schematic of a slow earthflow, often called creep
Figure 4. This photograph shows the effects of creep, in an area near East Sussex, United Kingdom, called the Chalk Grasslands. Steep slopes of thin soil over marine chalk deposits, develop a ribbed pattern of grass-covered horizontal steps that are 0.3 to 0.6 meter (1 to 2 feet) high. Although subsequently made more distinct by cattle and sheep walking along with them, these terraces (commonly known as sheep tracks) were formed by the gradual, creeping movement of soil downhill. (Photograph by Ian Alexander.

Flows in Permafrost

Failures in permafrost conditions involve the movement of fine-grained, previously ice-rich soil and can occur on gentle slopes. Seasonal thaw of the upper meter of frozen ground melts ground ice and results in oversaturation of the soil, which in turn loses shear strength and initiates flows. Solifluction, a form of cold environment creep, involves very slow deformation of the surface and forms shallow lobes elongated downslope.

Active layer detachments, also known as skinflows, involve a rapid flow of a shallow layer of saturated soil and vegetation, forming long, narrow flows moving on the surface but over the underlying permanently frozen soil. This type of movement may expose buried ice lenses, which when thawed may develop into retrogressive thaw flows or possibly debris flows. Retrogressive thaw flows are larger features with a bimodal shape of a steep headwall and low-angle tongue of saturated soil. This type of feature will continue to expand through headscarp retrogression until displaced vegetation buries and insulates the ice-rich scarp.

Occurrence

Flows are common in ice-rich permafrost soils in northern latitudes and high altitudes (cold environments).

Relative size/range

Flows are generally small but can increase in size through headscarp retrogression. They may evolve into a larger debris flow.

Velocity of travel

Very slow (solifluction); slow (retrogressive thaw flow); rapid (active layer detachment).

Triggering mechanisms

Above-average summer temperatures, frost wedges, wildfire, and anthropogenic disturbances to insulating peat layer. Such landslides are particularly likely in warming climates.

Effects (direct/indirect)

Damage to pipelines and roads and other structures can be severe.

Corrective measures/mitigation

Infrastructure designs that have minimal effect on the surface peat layer or temperature of the active layer and avoidance, when possible, of ice-rich soils when planning roads and other infrastructure, can reduce risk. Ice content of the upper soil can be readily tested.

Predictability

If ice-rich soil thaws, it will flow. In some areas, ice content has been mapped; in other areas, ice content can be estimated on the basis of specific mapped units shown on surficial geology maps. Figures 5 and 6 show a schematic and an image of permafrost-related flow.

Figure 4. Schematic of a retrogressive thaw flow slide. (Schematic by Jan Aylsworth,
Geological Survey of Canada.)
Figure 6. Photograph of a retrogressive thaw flow in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Wildfire has likely contributed to the size of the flow by means of damage to an insulating moss layer, resulting in the thickening of the active layer, which is thawing the permafrost. (Photograph by Marten Geertsema, Ministry of Forests, British Columbia, Canada.)

Adapted of “The Landslide Handbook” By L. M. Highland, U.S. Geological Survey, and P. Bobrowsky, Geological Survey of Canada

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