The cone penetration or cone penetrometer test (CPT) is a method used to determine the geotechnical engineering properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy. It was initially developed in the 1950s at the Dutch Laboratory for Soil Mechanics in Delft to investigate soft soils. Based on this history it has also been called the “Dutch cone test”. Today, the CPT is one of the most used and accepted soil methods for soil investigation worldwide.
The test method consists of pushing an instrumented cone, with the tip facing down, into the ground at a controlled rate (controlled between 1.5 -2.5 cm/s accepted). The resolution of the CPT in delineating stratigraphic layers is related to the size of the cone tip, with typical cone tips having a cross-sectional area of either 10 or 15 cm², corresponding to diameters of 3.6 and 4.4 cm. A very early ultra-miniature 1 cm² subtraction penetrometer was developed and used on a US mobile ballistic missile launch system (MGM-134 Midgetman) soil/structure design program in 1984 at the Earth Technology Corporation of Long Beach, California.
How is a Cone penetration test undertaken?
The cone penetration test can be completed from the ground surface.
Cone penetration test rigs vary in size – from small portable rigs to large truck-mounted rigs. Each rig has benefits and limitations but they all conduct the same test.
A cone penetration test rig pushes a steel cone (about 32mm wide) into the ground, generally up to 20m below the surface or until the cone reaches a hard layer. The steel cone contains an electronic measuring system that records tip resistance and sleeve friction.
As the cone is pushed into the ground, the soil responds with differing degrees of resistance. This resistance is recorded using force sensors in the tip.
At the same time as the sensors are recording resistance at the cone tip, sensors in the friction sleeve are recording sleeve friction along a 100mm length. Some cones also have a pore water transducer, which records water pressure in the soil. These readings can be used to determine ground water responses as the cone is pushed through the soils.
A cone penetration test typically takes between 30 minutes and three hours. As the cone goes into the ground, measurements are constantly sent back to the rig and recorded on computer.
Additional in situ testing parameters
In addition to the mechanical and electronic cones, a variety of other CPT-deployed tools have been developed over the years to provide additional subsurface information. One common tool advanced during CPT testing is a geophone set to gather seismic shear wave and compression wave velocities.
This data helps determine the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio at intervals through the soil column for soil liquefaction analysis and low-strain soil strength analysis. Engineers use the shear wave velocity and shear modulus to determine the soil’s behavior under low-strain and vibratory loads. Additional tools such as laser-induced fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence, soil conductivity/resistivity, pH, temperature and membrane interface probe and cameras for capturing video imagery are also increasingly advanced in conjunction with the CPT probe.
An additional CPT deployed tool used in Britain, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and France is a piezocone combined with a tri-axial magnetometer. This is used to attempt to ensure that tests, boreholes, and piles, do not encounter unexploded ordnance (UXB) or duds. The magnetometer in the cone detects ferrous materials of 50 kg or larger within a radius of up to about 2 m distance from the probe depending on the material, orientation and soil conditions.
What do the test results tell us?
Cone penetration test results are used by geotechnical engineering specialists to understand the soil properties (the relative density of the soil and the soil behaviour type, both of which are calculated from the cone penetration test cone tip resistance and sleeve friction) and how the ground is likely to behave under different levels of earthquake shaking. This information can help in the design of foundations and ground improvements.
In Canterbury, cone penetration test results are commonly used to determine the liquefaction-triggering resistance of each soil layer. These assessments commonly use computer software to determine if soil layers are predicted to liquefy for different levels of earthquake shaking.
By doing a test before and after ground improvement works, cone penetration test results can also be used to determine how much strength a soil has gained following ground improvement works.
History and development
The early applications of CPT mainly determined the soil geotechnical property of bearing capacity. The original cone penetrometers involved simple mechanical measurements of the total penetration resistance to pushing a tool with a conical tip into the soil. Different methods were employed to separate the total measured resistance into components generated by the conical tip (the “tip friction”) and friction generated by the rod string.
A friction sleeve was added to quantify this component of the friction and aid in determining soil cohesive strength in the 1960s. Electronic measurements began in 1948 and improved further in the early 1970s. Most modern electronic CPT cones now also employ a pressure transducer with a filter to gather pore water pressure data. The filter is usually located either on the cone tip (the so-called U1 position), immediately behind the cone tip (the most common U2 position) or behind the friction sleeve (U3 position). Pore water pressure data aids determining stratigraphy and is primarily used to correct tip friction values for those effects.
CPT testing which also gathers this piezometer data is called CPTU testing. CPT and CPTU testing equipment generally advances the cone using hydraulic rams mounted on either a heavily ballasted vehicle or using screwed-in anchors as a counter-force. One advantage of CPT over the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is a more continuous profile of soil parameters, with data recorded at intervals typically of 20 cm but as small as 1 cm.
Manufacturers of cone penetrometer probes and data acquisition systems include Hogentogler, which has been acquired by the Vertek Division of Applied Research Associates, GeoPoint Systems BV and Pagani Geotechnical Equipment.
Standards and use of Cone penetration test
CPT for geotechnical applications was standardized in 1986 by ASTM Standard D 3441 (ASTM, 2004). ISSMGE provides international standards on CPT and CPTU. Later ASTM Standards have addressed the use of CPT for various environmental site characterization and groundwater monitoring activities.
For geotechnical soil investigations, CPT is more popular compared to SPT as a method of geotechnical soil investigation. Its increased accuracy, speed of deployment, more continuous soil profile and reduced cost over other soil testing methods. The ability to advance additional in situ testing tools using the CPT direct push drilling rig, including the seismic tools described above, are accelerating this process.