A fall begins with the detachment of soil or rock, or both, from a steep slope along a surface on which little or no shear displacement has occurred. The material subsequently descends mainly by falling (rockfall) ), bouncing, or rolling.
Falls are abrupt, downward movements of rock or earth, or both, that detach from steep slopes or cliffs. The falling material usually strikes the lower slope at angles less than the angle of fall, causing bouncing. The falling mass may break on impact, may begin rolling on steeper slopes, and may continue until the terrain flattens.
Occurrence and relative size/range
Common worldwide on steep or vertical slopes—also in coastal areas, and along rocky banks of rivers and streams. The volume of material in a fall can vary substantially, from individual rocks or clumps of soil to massive blocks thousands of cubic meters in size.
Velocity of travel
Very rapid to extremely rapid, free-fall; bouncing and rolling of detached soil, rock, and boulders. The rolling velocity depends on slope steepness.
Undercutting of the slope by natural processes such as streams and rivers or differential weathering (such as the freeze/thaw cycle), human activities
such as excavation during road building and (or) maintenance, and earth-
quake shaking or other intense vibration.
Falling material can be life-threatening. Falls can damage property beneath the fall-line of large rocks. Boulders can bounce or roll great distances and damage structures or kill people. Damage to roads and railroads is particularly high: rockfalls can cause deaths in vehicles hit by rocks and can block highways and railroads.
Rock curtains or other slope covers, protective covers over roadways,
retaining walls to prevent rolling or bouncing, explosive blasting of hazardous target areas to remove the source, removal of rocks or other materials from highways and railroads can be used. Rock bolts or other similar types of anchoring used to stabilize cliffs, as well as scaling, can lessen the hazard. Warning signs are recommended in hazardous areas for awareness. Stopping or parking under hazardous cliffs should be
Mapping of hazardous rockfall areas has been completed in a few areas around the world. Rock-bounce calculations and estimation methods for delineating the perimeter of rockfall zones have also been determined and the information widely published. Indicators of imminent rockfall include terrain with overhanging rock or fractured or jointed rock along steep slopes, particularly in areas subject to frequent freeze-thaw cycles. Also, cut faces in gravel pits may be particularly subject to falls.
A topple is recognized as the forward rotation out of a slope of a mass of soil or rock around a point or axis below the centre of gravity of the displaced mass.
Toppling is sometimes driven by gravity exerted by the weight of material upslope from the displaced mass. Sometimes toppling is due to water or ice in cracks in the mass. Topples can consist of rock, debris (coarse material), or earth materials (fine-grained material). Topples can be complex and composite.
Known to occur globally, often prevalent in columnar-jointed volcanic terrain, as well as along stream and river courses where the banks are steep.
Velocity of travel
Extremely slow to extremely rapid, sometimes accelerating throughout the movement depending on the distance of travel.
Sometimes driven by gravity exerted by a material located upslope from the displaced mass and sometimes by water or ice occurring in cracks within the mass; also, vibration, undercutting, differential weathering, excavation, or stream erosion.
Can be extremely destructive, especially when failure is sudden and (or)
the velocity is rapid.
In rock, there are many options for the stabilization of topple-prone areas. Some examples for reinforcement of these slopes include rock bolts and mechanical and other types of anchors. Seepage is also a contributing factor to rock instability and drainage should be considered and addressed as a corrective means.
Not generally mapped for susceptibility; some inventory of occurrence exists for certain areas. Monitoring of topple-prone areas is useful; for example, the use of tiltmeters. Tiltmeters are used to record changes in slope inclination near cracks and areas of greatest vertical movements.
Warning systems based on movement measured by tiltmeters could be effective.
Adapted of “The Landslide Handbook” By L. M. Highland, U.S. Geological Survey, and P. Bobrowsky, Geological Survey of Canada